新 SAT 考了 2 年,我们终于可以帮你整理出这些词汇题的套路!


词汇题的题干识别非常简单,As used in line 62,"common" most nearly means。大家都知道,托福的词汇题几乎都是对词本意的考查,即选近义词,所以做托福阅读时,词汇题一般都是帮我们节省时间,秒选的题目。但 SAT 恰恰相反:与其说是考近义词,不如说是考词语的替换。也就是说,题干翻译过来应该是:下列哪一个词最能替换掉某某行的某某词。

例如: In line 7, "impugned" most nearly means

A. contradicted

B. challenged

C. opposed

D. resisted

It seemed strange to see her own name there. It was as if her individuality, her very identity, was impugned by the fact that there should be two Rachel Deanes. ( Khan – literature )

Impugn 这个词知不知道其实并不是那么重要,因为你要在原句中把 impugn 当成 blank,也就是先把这个词剃掉,It seemed strange to see her own name there. It was as if her individuality, her very identity, was____by the fact that there should be two Rachel Deanes.


也就是说,知道四个选项的意思和理解该词所在的那句话的句意是最为关键的,因为考查得是 words in context,这个 context 通常情况下就是词汇所在的句子。但也有极少说是一段,甚至是整篇文章。



把考词在句子中当成 blank,理解该词所在句子,把选项一一代入,意思上最合理的一个即是答案。如何才能判断某个词汇是最合理的词汇呢 ? 我们知道,这种题目考查的是 words in context,这个 context 可大可小。小到一个词组,大到整篇文章。因此此类题目的解题方法也随着 context 的变化而变化。

解题方法 1:看搭配 ( context 是一个词组 ) ,适用在考查动词及少数形容词时。


例 1 As used in line 73, "harbor" most nearly means

A. keep

B. contain

C. nurture

D. protect

A somewhat raw piece of meat can harbor lots of potentially dangerous microbes. ( Khan – science )

此题很简单,但也最能说明解题方法。把 harbor 当成 blank,句意是:一片生肉 _____ 许多微生物。然后把四个选项一一代入可知 contain " 含有,包含 " 是对的。

例 2 As used in line 16, "launch" most nearly means

A. eject

B. throw

C. catapult

D. initiate

Though Haast ’ s eagle could fly-and presumably used its wings to launch brutal attacks on the hapless moa-its body mass ( 10- 14 kilograms ) pushed the limits for self-propelled flight. ( Khan – science )

句子中考查动词的词组是 to launch attacks,通过 launch 这个词和原文意思可知这里应该是 " 发动攻击 ",四个选项各自代入的话可知应该是 initiate" 发起 " 最合适。词汇题题干的词考得不一定是本意,但选项词考查的都是最基本的意思。

例 3 As used in line 32, "handle" most nearly means

A. train for

B. survive in

C. engage in

D. act on

The calcified, or rigid-bodied, seaweed has multiple noncalcified joints that make it flexible yet strong enough to handle that setting. ( 2017-05-Asia )

如果说上一题题干的动词还跟选项有些近义的关系,那么这道题四个选项跟 handle 就一点关系都没有了,所以更能体现替换动词的这个考查点。所以 strong enough to_____that setting. 在那个环境里足以怎么样。

A 选项代入后是足以为那个环境训练,B 选项是足以在那个环境下生存,C 选项是参加那个环境,D 是足以对那个环境起作用。B 显然是最搭配的,而且再看一眼句意也符合。

例 4 As used in line 67, "demonstrated" most nearly means

A. protested

B. established

C. performed

D. argued

Subsequent research supports this model. Alexander Volkov and his colleagues at Oakwood University in Alabama first demonstrated that it is indeed electricity that causes the Venus flytrap to close. ( 2017-01-U.S. )

只看搭配的话 B 选项 first established that … 第一次建立这个理论和 D 选项 first argued that …第一次主张这个理论都可以说得通,所以这道题不仅要考虑搭配,还要考虑验证的逻辑。前一句话说后续的研究证实了这个模型,所以后面那句话不能是第一次主张了,因为实验已经可以证实。所以是 B。

例 5 As used in line 77, "established" most nearly means

A. validated

B. founded

C. introduced

D. enacted

The professor presented the Higgs field with such certainty that for a long while I had no idea it had yet to be established experimentally. ( 2016-10-U.S. )

此题看搭配完全可以应对,be_____experimentally 在实验上被怎样,已经通过实验的那一定是验证,证实了,所以只能选 A。不能确定的话还可以看前半句,教授讲此理论时非常确定,也可以证明是 A 选项。

例 6 As used in line 69, "betting on" most nearly means

A. dabbling in.

B. gambling with.

C. switching from.

D. optimistic about.

Even longer-term, green is betting on silicon, aiming to take advantage of the huge reductions in cost already seen with the technology. ( 2016-05-Asia )

四个单词分别替换掉 betting on, 知道本意的同学容易选 B, 但是 B 代进去就变成了 gamble with silicon,与硅赌注,偏离意思了。句意是看好硅,押注于硅,所以 D 才是最合适的。

例 7 As used in line 5, "represent" most nearly means

A. identify

B. portray

C. personify

D. constitute

For animals that live in stable groups, strangers--unknown individuals from outside one ’ s group--represent a significant danger. ( 2016-11-Asia )

此题简化后应该是 strangers represent a significant danger。看似简单,实际暗藏杀机。

被选最多的是前两个选项,但我们代入后会发现用法上不通。其实,前三个词的用法是 sb. identify/portray/personify stranger as a significant danger, 或者是 strangers are identified/portrayed/personified as … . 所以用法上替换不进去,C 意思上就不对,所以很容易排除。只能选 D,constitute 翻译为 " 是,被看做 ",与 represent 语法上的用法一致。

解题方法 2:看句子结构 ( context 是一个句子 ) ,适用在考查名词及形容词时。


例 8 As used in line 53, "dominion" most nearly means

A. omnipotence

B. supremacy

C. ownership

D. territory

Mankind have outgrown this state, and all things now tend to substitute, as the general principle of human relations, a just equality, instead of the dominion of the strongest. ( 2016-10-U.S. )

句子的主干是 all things now tend to substitute a just equality, instead of the dominion of the strongest。

通过 instead of " 而不是 " 可知前后两个部分应该相反,所以前面是 equality,instead of 后应该是 equality 的反义词,所以 B 选项 " 霸权 " 合适。这道题是一道典型的通过语言结构判断的题目,在过去的 SAT 里,阅读部分经常会这么考查词汇。

例 9 As used in line 33, "figure" most nearly means

A. symbol

B. number

C. level

D. structure

As a consequence, the downsides of economic growth and modernization ought to be accounted for whilst retaining the benefits of the GDP, namely a single figure that captures different entities and is comparable across nations. ( Khan – social science )

通过整个句子我们得知,figure 指的就是 GDP,那么 GDP 就是一个简单的数字,所以应该是 B。考查名词的很多时候要知道名词指的是什么从而来判断。

例 10 As used in line 63, "awful" most nearly means

A. distressing

B. disgusting

C. shocking

D. appalling

This was so awful that Fenella quickly turned her back on hem, swallowed once, twice, and frowned terribly at a little green star on a mast head. But she had to turn round again; her father was going. ( Khan – literature )

so awful that,如此…以至于…。这个结构告诉我们 that 后面所叙述的都是为了体现这个形容词的,所以看整个后面的句子推出 Fenella 非常苦恼,不开心 ( swallow,frown ) ,所以应该是 A。

例 11 As used in line 8, "prominent" most nearly means

A. pronounced

B. remarkable

C. recognized

D. projecting

This is the most prominent yardstick that the media, politicians and the public consider when they try to assess how a country is performing. ( Khan – social science )

此题也是一个解释的结构,that 后同样解释 prominent 这个形容词,说媒体,政治家和公众都认为…,所以应该选 C,recognized" 公认的 "。

解题方法 3:看逻辑 ( context 是一个段落,甚至整篇文章 ) ,适用在考形容词时。

极个别的题目需要考虑段落甚至整篇文章的 context,这种题目显然就非常难了,我们来看一道例题。

例 12 As used in line 29, "mischievous" most nearly means

A. disobedient

B. spirited

C. spiteful

D. damaging

But it is nevertheless a maxim well established by experience, and generally acknowledged, where there has been sufficient experience, that the aggregate prosperity of manufactures, and the aggregate prosperity of Agriculture are intimately connected.

In the Course of the discussion which has had place, various weighty considerations have been adduced operating in support of that maxim.

Perhaps the superior steadiness of the demand of a domestic market for the surplus produce of the soil, is alone a convincing argument of its truth.

Ideas of a contrariety of interests between the Northern and Southern regions of the Union, are in the Main as unfounded as they are mischievous. ( Khan – history )

这道题会做的同学完全可以用排除法,mischievous 形容的是 idea,所以只有 D 最合适。这是最简单的做法,因为选项没有出的特别难辨别。

深一步推,也可以用结构 as unfounded as they are mischievous,即…又…,所以可以判断两个都是负向的词。再深一步,idea 其实是作者的反面观点,而上一段中写出了作者的 central claim,即 the aggregate prosperity of manufactures, and the aggregate prosperity of Agriculture are intimately connected. 也就是说两个产业的繁荣是密不可分的,所以两个产业如果对立,显然就不能达到繁荣,所以应该选 damaging,damage nation building,破坏经济繁荣。

词汇题考试的精髓就是哪个词汇在语境下最为合适,上面我们讨论的看搭配,看语言结构和看逻辑都是一些方法,而最终的核心还是读懂背景句,即看懂 context。原则不变下,方法根据不同的题目而不同,大家最好能几种方法同时应用,因为很多题目一种方法可能解决不了,比如:

例 13 As used in line 45, "sighs for" most nearly means

A. dismisses

B. craves

C. exhales

D. suffers

She, like Tantalus, is placed in a situation where the intellectual blessing she sighs for is within her view; but she is not permitted to attain it. ( 2017-05-U.S. )

此题首先要考虑动词搭配找到 sigh for 的宾语是 intellectual blessing,但后面有说她得不到,所以根绝语意的逻辑得知她怎么样一个东西但有得不到,所以应该选 B" 渴求 "。所以这道题不仅要考虑搭配,还要考虑语意的顺承逻辑。

例 14 As used in line 5, "styled" most nearly means

A. designed

B. called

C. fashioned

D. resembled

A man of wealth, and magnificent tastes, and prodigal expenditure. His home might almost be styled a palace; his habits, in ordinary sense, princely. ( 2016-06-U.S. )

此题也是,即需要考虑搭配,还需要考虑句子结构,因为后面的那个结构省略了 might be styled,所以最贴切的应该是 B。当然,这道题如果知道 style 有这个意思很好选。

总结 & 建议

我们这里讨论的词汇题的方法可能并不能适用到所有的题目,但基本上囊括了应该去思考的所有方面。但万变不离其宗,只要理解了 context 的意思,然后把词一一代入,句意、语言结构、逻辑关系及语法搭配几个方面都吻合,那么该词就是正确答案。


一般情况下,题干词汇非常简单时,其实再考 Words in context; 如果题干词汇本身就很难,那么选近义词一般不会错。

词汇题是新 SAT 考试的一大重点,题目众多,要想做到万无一失,就需要多加练习,找到做词汇题的感觉,TD 也把考试中的词汇题进行了精选,大家可以针对性的练习,希望对大家有所帮助。


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