托福听力推断题:听懂“言外之意”
留学小站04-17

 

托福听力测试中,推理推断题是比较有难度的一类托福听力题型。根据言语行为 ( speech act ) 理论,我们知道,每一句话都在实习三种言语行为:言内行为 ( locutionary act ) 、言外行为 ( illocutionary act ) 和言后行为 ( perlocutionary act ) 。其中言外行为是日常生活中出现最多的言语行为,即 " 言外之意 "。而托福听力测试,基于仿真性原则与语用原则,关注真实场景中对对话、讲座的理解,考察言外之意的重要性。推理推断题,就是以考察 " 言外之意 " 为目的的题型。

基于这种理解,我们可以得出推理推断题的做题方法。我们应当通过托福听力材料内在逻辑、上下文之间的关系得到超于文本本身的说话人的意图,即 " 言外之意 "。推理推断题的标志词是 "reveal, imply, indicate" 等。

例 . What does the professor imply about the painting of the young woman surrounded by pumpkins? ( TPO1, L1 )

A. It was painted at an art fair

B. It combines Impressionism with Realism

C. It convinced Frantzen that she was a good illustrator

D. It was originally meant to be used in an advertisement

这是一道典型的推理推断题,关键词是 imply。在文中定位题干中 " 被南瓜包围的少妇 "。教授说到 : "Good. One other painting I really want you to look at is of a young woman surrounded by pumpkins. You will notice that the woman ’ s face is so realistic looking that it ’ s almost like a photograph. The woman ’ s nose is a little less than perfect and her hair is kind of messed up. This is realism. But then, the background of the painting, this woman with the pumpkins is wrapped in a blanket of broad thick brushstrokes, and, it ’ s all kinds of zigzagging brushstrokes and lines, kind of chaotic almost when you look at it close. And there are vibrant colors. There ’ s lots of orange, with little hints of an electric blue peeking out."

首先定位,教授描述了这幅画,前半段说到妇女的脸很现实,就好像照片一样。他的鼻子也有瑕疵,头发有些凌乱。这是 realism,现实主义。后半段用 But 分割,说到这幅画有着宽厚的笔触、之字形线条、明亮的颜色。这时我们要联系前文 "Impressionist painters tended to apply paint really thickly, and in big brushstrokes, so the texture of the canvas was rough." 说明这些特点都是前文中 impressionism,印象主义的特点 ( 题点第二段 ) 。说明这幅画既有现实主义也有印象主义特点,得到 B。

这是一道典型的推理推断题,它的答案没有直接出现在文本中,但是通过分析、推理,还是可以得到正确答案。因此,推理推断题的特点是答案需要从文本细节信息中分析、总结才能获得,有时甚至需要联系前文。即答案是基于文本,且超于文本的。

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