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托福阅读词汇题看不懂生词也能做题3招实用技巧讲解
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很多人都说托福阅读成败都看词汇题,能够顺利准确地做好词汇题会给考生节省很多时间,也是非常有利的分数保障,但反过来如果词汇题里问的是不认识的生词,考生也往往会比较缺乏合理的应对手段。有鉴于此,下面小编就来为大家分享一些托福阅读词汇题看不懂生词也能做题的实用技巧。

托福阅读词汇题占比数据分析

众所周知,托福阅读考试按照官方指南 OG 上的说法共有 10 大类题型,而其中词汇题是数量最多难度也比较低的一种题型。根据多年的数据统计和官方推出的各类学习模考资料来看,在托福阅读中词汇题的题目数量占比在 15%-20% 左右,每篇阅读文章附带的题目中都至少会带上 2-3 道词汇题,因此能否顺利应对这一题型,对考生确保和提升托福阅读成绩可谓意义重大。

托福阅读词汇题看不懂生词应对技巧介绍

当然,想要顺利应对词汇题,考生不仅需要拥有更足够丰富的词汇量,同样也需要具备应对陌生词汇也能顺利解答词汇题的能力和技巧。词汇题虽然看似简单,只要认识词汇就能顺利做答,但反过来如果考生不认识词汇,那么解题难度就会直线上升。然而想要做好词汇题,即使不认识题目中的词汇,考生仍然是有机会和希望做对的,前提是掌握了以下这 3 类技巧:

应对技巧 1:寻找和熟悉词汇的关系

The assessment of past rises and falls in sea level requires study of submerged land surfaces off the coast and of elevated beaches on land. Raised beaches are remnants of former coastlines at higher levels relative to the present shoreline and visible, for instance, along the California coast north of San Francisco, the height of a raised beach above the present shoreline, however, does not generally give a straightforward indication of the height of a former sea level.

The word "remnants" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. remains

B. regions

C. pints

D. origins

应对托福阅读词汇题看不懂词汇的问题,最主要或者说实用的技巧就是结合文章和题目以及选项中的其它考生熟悉的词汇来进行逻辑推理和分析判断,以便推测出生词的含义。以上面这道题目为例,考生如果不认识 remnants 这个词,解题可能就无法进行下去了。那么我们不妨来找一下大家应该会相对更熟悉一些的词汇,原文中距离 remnants 最近的一个熟词是 former,这个词代表了过去,在 for instance 之后的例子中也再次出现了。然后再看看选项,其中和过去关系最大的应该就是 remains 了,毕竟想到过去就联想到遗留,残留之类的意思是比较符合逻辑思维的,那么 remnants 的意思应该也就是 remains,这道题的正确答案就是 A。

应对技巧 2:从上下文中找线索

At night, the solar energy ( stored as vast quantities of heat in city buildings and roads ) is slowly released into the city air. Additional city heat is given off at night ( and during the day ) by vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. The slow release of heat tends to keep nighttime city temperatures higher than those of the faster-cooling rural areas.

The word "retarded" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. disguised

B. added to

C. made possible

D. slowed down

应对托福阅读词汇题中陌生词汇的第二个技巧是从生词本身所在的上下文中寻找线索来进行突破。以上面这道题为例,retarded 出现在这个句子里:

The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside.

很显然这是个大家比较头疼的长难句,先来简化一下,变成:

The tall vertical city walls are doing something to the heat energy because they do not allow infrared radiation to escape.

总而言之就是 city wall 对 heat energy 做了点什么以防止 radiation escape。这个句子里比较有意思的就是 do not allow,现在再回头去看题目选项给出的这些词汇,added to 和 made possible 显然在意思上都是和 not allowed 有冲突的,可以先排除掉,剩下的 diguised 不好判断,heat energy 能不能被 disguised 不好说,但放在这里显然意思上不太搭,跟整个句子关系不大。这样一来选项 D 显然看上去就顺眼多了,不让 infrared radiation 逃脱所以要 slow down 一下 heat energyd 的释放也是比较符合逻辑关系的。正确答案也的确就是 D。

应对技巧 3:词性判断排除法

Several dinosaur fossil localities preserve coprolites. Coprolites yield unequivocal evidence about the dietary habits of dinosaurs. Many parts of plants and animals are extremely resistant to the digestive systems of animals and pass completely through the body with little or no alteration. Study of coprolites has indicated that the diets of some herbivorous dinosaurs were relatively diverse, while other dinosaurs appear to have been specialists, feeding on particular types of plants. The problem with inferring diets from coprolites is the difficulty in accurately associating a particular coprolite with a specific dinosaur.

The word "unequivocal" in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. deniable

B. unambiguous

C. unclear

D. largely

最后一种应对词汇题生词的技巧其原理来自于做选择题时比较经典的排除法思路。而应用到词汇题上,比较容易切入的一个排除点就在于词汇本身的词性了。来看上面这道例题,选项的 4 个词汇里有一个明显画风不一样词性不对路的词,就是选项 D 的 largely,妥妥的副词。而 uneuivocal 本身很明显是一个形容词。所以选项 D 就可以先行排除掉了。之后再看剩下的 3 个选项,deniable 和 unclear 意思是比较相近的,都有不确定的含义在里面,而 unambiguous 的意思则正好相反,是毫不含糊,明确。那么正确选项应该就是 B 了。

以上就是小编为大家带来的关于托福阅读词汇题的一些特殊应对技巧分析。大家不要觉得词汇题看不懂词汇就没法解答,有时候结合逻辑思维推理分析能力和技巧也能取得不错的效果。小编希望上文提到的这些应对技巧能够帮助大家更好地解答词汇题提升阅读得分。

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